Importance of feeding By-Pass nutrients in Cow

Feeding bypass nutrients in dairy Cows

The most essential criteria in determining dairy animal profitability are milk output and optimal reproductive performance. To satisfy the increased milk production, high-yielding cows require more nutrients. However, in early lactating cows and buffaloes, energy intake does not match the need for increased milk production, resulting in the establishment of a Negative Energy Balance (NEB) that has a direct impact on their performance. As a result, the extent and duration of NEB must be reduced in order to increase the productive output of animals. One such strategy is the use of bypass nutrients, which protect dietary elements (fat, protein, etc.) from hydrolysis, allowing them to skip the rumen fermentation and be digested and absorbed from the lower tract. Protected starch, chelated minerals, and vitamins are among the additional nutrients that are protected.

Importance of feeding By-Pass nutrients in Cow
Importance of feeding By-Pass nutrients in Cow

Benefits of feeding bypass nutrients

  •     Increased nutrient consumption
  •     Increased availability of essential amino acids
  •     Increase in fat and SNF per cent, as well as improved milk
  •     Improved growth in young

Various By pass Nutrients

  1.     Bypass Proteins
  2.     Bypass Starch
  3.     Bypass Fats
  4.     Bypass/ Chelated Minerals


By pass Proteins

Dairy Bypass Protein is a type of animal or plant-based protein that resists breakdown in the rumen of dairy cows, allowing it to transit into the lower gastrointestinal tract and feed the cow with vital amino acids. For ruminant animals, the majority of the feed is degradable in the rumen, ‘Rumen Degradable Protein’ (RDP), while a variable proportion of dietary protein escapes rumen decomposition, ‘Un- degradable Dietary Protein’ (UDP). Following enzymatic digestion, UDP reaches the lower tract and is primarily absorbed as amino acids. 

The rumen microorganisms use the majority of the RDP fraction as a source of nitrogen for protein synthesis, while the rest is absorbed as ammonia. Because microbial protein alone cannot meet the protein requirements of rapidly growing animals, proteins in the form of UDP, escape proteins, or protected proteins must be provided to meet the demand. The protection of protein can be achieved by various methods.

    Naturally Protected Proteins: , maize gluten meal, cottonseed cake, fish meal, coconut cake and maize grain, etc.

    Heat Treatment: Heating a protein supplement thoroughly promotes denaturation of the protein, which protects it against microbial fermentation in the rumen. Heat treatment at 125-150°C for 2-4 hours could effectively protect proteins.

    Esophageal Groove: This is a normal function in young ruminants. It is good for liquid proteins. Salts of sodium, copper, silver, and zinc are often utilised chemicals that influence the closure of the

    Formaldehyde Treatment: This is the most common chemical treatment for protein The use of formaldehyde to protect ruminant dietary protein is based on the idea that bonded formaldehyde affects the solubility of the protein at pH 6.0, making it resistant to microbial attack in the rumen without affecting its digestibility in the small intestine.

    Post Rumen Infusion (Fistula): A surgically placed fistula in the lower intestine is a simple way to avoid rumen microbial protein breakdown.

    Protein Encapsulation: Protein encapsulation is commonly used for high-value Proteins can be supplied in capsule form with a combination of lipids or fatty acids, as well as carbonate, kaolin, lecithin, glucose, and other additives.

    Analogs of Amino Acids: Another strategy for rumen bypass of amino acids is structural modification of amino acids to promote resistance to ruminal breakdown. The analogue must be biologically potent in tissue metabolism in addition to being absorbable from the small intestine. Methionine hydroxy, N-acetyl-DLMetionine, DLHomocysteine and other analogues have provided satisfactory

    Reducing Rumen Retention Time: Less time in the rumen environment means less breakdown since feed or protein is exposed to enzymatic action for lesser duration. The explanation is a faster feed transit through the rumen.

  By pass starch

By pass starch can help to minimize lactic acid production in the rumen, which would otherwise prevent fiber digestion due to the rumen’s acidic pH. Thus, starch which escapes rumen fermentation, is digested in the small intestines producing glucose, which after absorption is more efficiently used as energy source by the animals, compared to lactic/propionic acid absorbed from rumen.

Starch protection techniques include:

Formaldehyde treatment can protect starch from degradation. Another way for protecting starch against ruminal hydrolysis could be to treat it with ammonia. It has been shown that treating starch with sodium carbonate and sodium hexameta phosphate reduces starch decomposition.

By pass fat

Rumen bypass or “protected” fats are dry fats that have been treated to make them easier to handle and incorporate into all animal meals. At rumen body temperature, dried lipids are mainly insoluble due to their high melting temperatures. Through a combination of caloric and non-caloric effects, adding protected fat to dairy feeds can improve dairy cow efficiency. Caloric effects are due to lipids’ higher energy content and energetic efficiency as compared to carbohydrates and proteins, with the overall benefit of increased milk supply and lactation persistence. The non-caloric effects include improved reproductive performance and altered fatty acid profile of milk.
Methods of fat protection:

Lipids encapsulated in formaldehyde-treated protein provide effective protection against ruminal hydrolysis and bio-hydrogenation of lipids, although the approach has limitations due to the use of formaldehyde. Free fatty acids are removed from edible oils during refining by treating them with sodium hydroxide and then acid. The free fatty acids thus removed by centrifugation are termed as acid oil which has roughly one-third the price of edible oils. These acid oils can be converted into calcium salts either by fusion or participation method. As a result, fatty acids in the form of calcium salts are protected against rumen enzymes, a strategy that can be exploited commercially for lipid protection.


In general, providing bypass nutrients to fast-growing calves and high-yielding dairy cows may be useful because they have a higher nutrient need. The animal response may be, however, quite variable due to other limiting factors (nutrients, health, management) affecting the utilisation of nutrients. The beneficial response to bypass nutrients feeding at lower output levels could be attributed in part to the energy supply provided by these diets. This is especially true when bypass nutrients-containing supplements are used with low-quality fibrous meals like straws. Hence, feeding of by pass nutrients can help in increasing the efficiency of high yielding animals and can assist in boosting daily net revenue.

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