Cats make great companions. Not only do they look good, they also keep mice away and have built-in motors. That’s pretty cool. But there’s more to owning a cat than having a cute, soft, purring companion. Before you get one, there are a few things you should think about, and a few things that are just plain good to know.

Cats are indeed independent by nature, but they’re not quite able to take care of themselves. Before you adopt, make sure that your lifestyle can make room for a feline. How busy you are and the amount of time you spend at home will dictate the kind of cat you should get — very busy people may find it difficult to find the time for a cat that needs a lot of grooming and attention, especially the highly intelligent and active cats.

As a cat owner, it’s your responsibility to provide continual care for your feline friend. But you don’t have to figure everything out on your own.

Once you cat, you can never go back! You’ve heard of that? As a cat owner only you can understand the addiction that comes with owning one. They are entertaining, great stress busters and provide unconditional love and companionship.

Contrary to the understanding that cats are totally independent they are not exactly independent of you, your affection and your concern. Your cat is dependent on your for the essentials which are love, his food, clean litter and veterinary care.
These cat care tips and guidelines will give you the facts you need to take good care of your new pet.


Vaccinating your cat-——

As far as your feline’s health management goes, the vaccination timetable will begin with a standard starter set of vaccines for your kitten at the age of two or two and a half months.

The first is the Tricat vaccine to protect your cat against 3 core diseases – feline panleucopaenia , herpesvirus and calicivirus. These diseases can have devastating consequences if your cat is unvaccinated and exposed to these viruses.

A month later, you have to give it a vaccine booster followed by the Anti-Rabies vaccine in 15 days. Every year for the first three years, the Tricat vaccine can be given along with an anti-rabies vaccine. After three years, only the anti-rabies vaccine is necessary.

You can have a vaccine titer (blood test) done to determine if your cat has adequate protection against a disease. Low titers mean the Tricat vaccine has to be given to provide immune protection.

Bathing and grooming your cat-——–
When it comes to bathing and grooming, you might just have a battle on your hands. Cats do not like to have a bath and can get angry or stressed. They may scratch or bite. They are clean animals and have a natural tendency to groom themselves.

You may have to intervene if you have a kitty who cannot maintain himself as his coat will end up getting greasy or sticky. High maintenance cats like Persian cats require bathing and grooming. Make sure your lifestyle allows you the time and financial means to take on a cat like this.

Most of the time, you will have to visit a professional pet parlor, if you cannot get the hang of bathing or grooming your cat yourself. Ask yourself if you will you be able to trim the hair around the anus of your cat? If your answer is no and you neglect it, you are inviting infection.


• The ovaries are relatively small, lima bean shaped, following ovulation the ova spend approximately 2 days moving through the oviducts to the uterus.
• In cats, the first stage of meiosis takes place before ovulation.
• Unlike the dog’s ova, the ova of that are ready for fertilization immediately upon ovulation and movement into the oviducts.
• Most female cats have four functioning pairs of mammary gland, which located in two parallel rows.
• The male cats are capable of sexual activity and mating throughout the year, but during winter their activity is reduced.
• The penis of cat is shaped and positioned so that it deflected slightly downward and caudally (rather than cranially, as in other domestic species) when erect.
• This allows intromission when the male mounts a receptive female.
• An additional unique characteristic is cat the external surface of the glans portion of the cat’s penis is spiked.
• These are directed to wards the base of the penis and provide stimulation to the walls of the female cat’s vagina during mating
• This stimulation is necessary for the Luteinizing hormone surge in the female cat that subsequently lead to ovulation.

• Female cats are seasonally polyestrous, and the season begins in January and end in October
• Cats normally reach sexual maturity at 5–10 months (females) and to 5–7 months (males), although this can vary depending on breed.

• Estrus cycle is 14-21 days and during this period more number of males are attracted. Males will fight each other and succeeded male will mate.

• The female in estrus can be identified by the ‘calling’, although this can be more like shrieking or wailing in some breeds such as Siamese. Some Persians content themselves with dainty little mews and miaows.

• The female displays some brazen behavior, rolling and dragging herself around the floor, flicking her tail and raising her rump to expose the reddened vulva.
• She may also lose interest in her food. Picking her up by her neck folds (as an interested tom would do) and stroke along her back may show positive response with pleasure, pads her feet and raises her tail.


• If a decision has been made to breed, the health of the cat must be thoroughly evaluated.
• For female, information like previous estrus period, breeding date and the outcome, health record, vaccination detail, disease history should be noted.
• The timing of breeding is best determined by the queen/s behaviour.
• As the queen enters estrus, she begins to show a coital crouch when in the presence of a male cat or in response to genital stimulation.
• A receptive female will solicit attention from the male cat and allow mounting and intromission.
• Mating in cats occurs rapidly, lasting between 30 seconds and 5 minutes.
• The tom cat mount and clasps the flanks of the female with his forelegs, her with his hind limbs, and grasps the dorsal aspect of her neck with his teeth.
• This grip is inhibited, and so only in very rate case penetrates the female’s skin.
• Almost immediately, the male treads rapidly with his hind limbs and shows pelvic thrusts, resulting in intromission.
• In domestic cats, intromission is almost immediate followed by ejaculation.
• The male immediately begins to dismount this cause the female to elicit a very shrill postcopulatory cry, after which she usually turns aggressively to wards the male.
• The aggressiveness is less to wards known mates.
• After mating female will vigorously roll on the floor, it shows other reactions like rubbing and licking that lasts between 30 seconds and several minutes.
• If the male is present she usually adopts a receptive position shortly after and breeding begins again.
• Cats resume mating with in 30 minutes and experienced pair will mate ten times in an hour.
• For LH surge and ovulation minimum of four mating is essential with in a period of 24 hours.
• The estrus period will normally end abruptly by 24 to 36 hours after initiation of mating.
• The female cat will not come to estrus until the kittens are weaned or until next breeding season.
• If the female does not conceived, she will either enter pseudopregnancy or return to estrus cycle.


• The gestation period for cats is between 63–67 days, with an average length of 66 days.
• The size of a litter averages three to five kittens, with the first litter usually smaller than subsequent litters.
• Kittens are weaned at between six and seven weeks, and
• Females can have two to three litters per year
• Cats are ready to go to new homes at about 12 weeks old, or when they are ready to leave their mother.


• The first sign is the distinct change in the teat at about 3 weeks of gestation, it turn from a pale color to pink and become enlarged and more firm.
• Next sign is failure to return to estrus. Pregnancy can be palpated as early as 15 days on wards.
• Uterine locules feel like a string of small distinct lumps about the size of walnuts, separated from one another along each uterine horn.
• Palpation beyond 30 to 35 days of pregnancy become difficult because the uterus becomes diffusely enlarged and separation between fetuses are difficult to detect.
• Ultrasonic examination of abdomen can be used as early as 14 to 15 day of gestation.
• After about four weeks, the queen’s stomach starts to distend, the nipples become very prominent, and she begins to look pregnant.
• By around 28 days, all the kitten’s internal organs have formed, and the embryos are about 2.5 cm long. The skeleton develops from about 40 days, and at 50 days, the kittens quicken – show signs of movement.


• A quiet place that is free from draft and cool place is suitable for queening.
• The pregnant cat should be introduced to this area 1 week prior to expected date of queening.
• This allows her to become adjusted to the area and have her scent deposited throughout the queening area before the kittens are born.
• Queening boxes may also be provided, it should provide easy access to the mother while preventing young kittens from escaping.
• The box should also be large enough for the mother to stretch out in full length on her side and have room to spare.
• A box that measured 1 to 2 times the length of the queen is ideal.
• Old towels, mattress pads or cloth diapers can be provided as bedding material.


• The average length of gestation is 63 to 65 days and female will show signs as early as 61 days.
• At the final week of gestation, the mammary glad enlarge rapidly, milk can be squeezed at last 1 to 2 days.
• One reliable mean is the body temperature of the queen, during the advanced stage of parturition, the body temperature should be monitored regularly, normally the female’s body temperature falls down 12 to 36 hours prior to parturition.
• The rectal temperature usually falls from 101.5 ° F to 98-100 ° F.
• The average time between initiation of strong uterine contraction of 2 stage labor to birth of kitten is around 10 to 30 minutes, and the total litter will born within 2 to 6 hours.
• Some times the female may take rest and will not show sign of labor for up to 2 hours between kittens.
• But active straining and signs of hard labor for more than 30 to 60 minutes is a sign of dystocia.


• Mother provides most of the care of newborn kitten. At birth the kittens are relatively immature.
• Their eyelids are not yet opened and cannot see. Their ears are also not yet functioning.
• When picked up, healthy newborn kitten should have good muscle tone, feel firm and plump and wiggle vigorously when handled.
• Healthy kittens are also quiet most of the time, crying only when they are hungry or cold.
• Excessive or prolonged crying is the first sign of a problem.
• They spend most of the time in sleeping and when they are awake, nursing.
• Healthy kitten should show normal weight gain.
• They should gain equivalent of their birth weight each week for the first 2 or 3 weeks.
• After 12 weeks of age; male kitten grow faster than female.
• First week they spend 4 hours or more per day for suckling, divided into short period.
• It gradually decreased to 3 hours and 2 hours in subsequent weeks.
• The mother cat gives a characteristic ‘murmur’ cry to initiate suckling and she adopts a body posture that makes the nipple easily accessible.
• Both the mother and the kitten usually purr continuously while nursing, and the kitten show treading movement (kneading) when their paws held against the mother’s abdomen, it facilitates milk ejection.


Age Eyes Ears Movement
1 week Eyes are closed at birth begin to open at about 8-10 days Ears folded down; no functional auditory sense Firm and plump body tone; wiggle when held; rooting reflex
Week 2 to 3 Eyes fully open; begin to react to close visual stimuli Ears straighten; begin responding to sound Begins crawling; teething begins
Week 3 to 4 Eyes open; react to close visual stimuli Hearing almost fully functional Active crawling; begins standing and walking unsteadily
Weeks 5 to 6 Eyes open, react to many visual stimuli Hearing fully functional Grooming and play behaviors; very active


• Kittens are weaned at between six and seven weeks, generally mother cat introduce solid food such as killed prey (mice) to the kittens.
• Similarly nutritional weaning of house cat also involves the introduction of solid food in the form of prepared cat food.
• In both cases, nutritional weaning involves a very gradual change in the diet from queen’s milk to solid cat food or prey.
• During first introductory week soupy gruel by mixing dry food with warm water can be provided.
• The mother cat should be separated form the litter for an hour prior to each feeding to ensure the kittens are hungry and not recently suckled.
• This will shift the kitten from suckling to lapping and then to chewing.
• Gradually the added water to the dry food can be decreased when age advances.
• The length of time that the mother is separated from the litter should also be gradually increased.
• Most queens will initiate these separations voluntarily and begin to make their milk less available to their kittens by walking away or using body postures to block access to their nipples.
• By 6 to 7 weeks of age most cat nurse little but it is advisable to continue to allow interactions between the mother and hen kitten until 7 to 9 weeks because these interaction are important for normal social development.

Orphan cat rearing

• Temporary care requires if the dam is ill or has had a caesarean section.
• In some case like death of mother or refusal to care for kitten require complete care.
• The needs of this kitten are same as that of others.
• Most important care is provision of ambient environment to the kitten; the sleeping area should be slightly warmer than the body temperature of cat.
• Since orphans did not receive colostrum, care must be taken to minimize exposure to pathogens or chilling.
• Orphans can be fed using either a commercial kitten formula or a homemade formula.
• For the first few days, kittens should be fed every 2 to 3 hours. This can be decreased slightly to every 4 to 5 hours until the kittens are 3 weeks of age.
• From 3 to 6 weeks, they should be fed at least 4 times per day.
• Eye dropper can be used to feed the food to newborn kittens because only small quantity is fed at a time.
• During the first 5 to 5 days, orphaned kittens should be weighed daily as a means of monitoring health.
• It is the goat when caring for orphans that they achieve near-normal rate of weight gain.
• For the first 2 weeks of life, the kitten must also be stimulated to urinate and defecate by stroking the belly, genital, and anal areas with a washcloth dampened with warm water.
• At 3 weeks kitten can be introduced to semisolid food and gradually weaned, just as if the mother were present.


• Cats can be surgically sterilized (spayed or castrated) as early as 7 weeks to limit unwanted reproduction.
• This surgery also prevents undesirable sex-related behavior, such as aggression, territory marking (spraying urine) in males and yowling (calling) in females.


• The ancestor of cat is the African wild cats which primarily prey on small rodents that are similar in size to field mice.
• Therefore the immediate ancestor of the cat is not an intermittent feeder like the larger wild cats; rather, it is an animal that feeds frequently throughout the day by catching and consuming a large number of small rodents.
• Like the majority of wild felids, the African wild cat is a solitary animal, living and hunting alone for much of its life and interacting with others of its species only during mating season.
• This solitary nature has resulted in an animal that tends to eat slowly and is generally uninhibited by the presence of other animals.
• Most domestic cats living in homes consume their food slowly and do not respond to other cats by either increasing the rate of eating or consuming a higher volume of food.
• In multiple cat homes, cats often eat peaceably from the same bowls either together or at different times of the day.
• When problems do occur, they are often very subtle, with one or more cats intimidating a less assertive cat and not allowing access to the food bowl or supplanting the cat if he or she was already eating
• To prevent this type of feeding problem, several feeding stations located in different areas of the home should always be provided in multiple-cat homes.
• If fed free-choice, most cats will nibble at their food throughout the day, as opposed to consuming a large amount of food at one time.
• Several studies of eating behavior in domestic cats have shown that if food is available free-choice, cats eat frequently and randomly throughout a 24-hour period.
• It is not unusual for a cat to eat between 9 and 16 meals per day, with each meal having a caloric content of only about 23 kilo calories (kcal). (Interestingly, the caloric value of a small field mouse is approximately 30 kcal.)
• It has been suggested that the eating behaviors observed in domestic cats are similar to those of feral domestic cats eating rodents or other small animals. However, just like the dog, the cat is capable of adapting to several types of feeding schedules.


• Cat should be fed individually and food selected should promote health
• The food should result in the formation of well formed stools and normal defection frequency
• The food should contain optimum nutrients
• Rapid change in the diet should be avoided.
• New diet should be introduced gradually by mixing it with the old diet in 25% increment each day.
• Cats are carnivores in nature.
• Feed should be rich in protein of animal or fish origin.
• Either raw or cooked meat can be fed. Sometimes there may be digestive trouble.
• Also provide vegetables, green grass etc to avoid digestive trouble.
• Green grass helps to expel fur balls from the stomach.
• Grass will be having vitamins and minerals especially trace minerals and so grass feeding is advantageous.
• Cat should be given plenty of drinking water.


• The dietary requirement for cat is more than other omnivorous species.
• Domestic cat required high protein along with its need for taurine, arachidonic acid and vitamin A in the diet impose requirement for the inclusion of animal tissues in the diet.
Energy requirement of cats
Age and level of activity Calculation of energy need Kcal per day
Adult cat
Inactive 60 kcal x body weight (kg) 240
Moderately active 70 kcal x body weight (kg) 280
Highly active 80 kcal x body weight (kg) 320
3 months (1 kg) 250 kcal x body weight (kg) 250
5 month (2.5kg) 130 kcal x body weight (kg) 325
• During pregnancy 1.25 to 1.5 times of maintenance ration can be given up to end of gestation and during lactation it should be increased to 2 to 3.5 times of adult maintenance ration.
• Studies showed that cats required substantially more protein than other mammals including dog.
• Cat can be fed with balanced commercial cat food.
• Under Indian condition mostly cats are fed with homemade food. The recipe of homemade food should be complete and balanced.

• A minimum level of fat is needed in the cat’s diet for the same purposes as with dogs. Also similar to dogs, cats are capable of thriving on a relatively wide range of dietary fat, provided the diet includes proper levels of all essential nutrients.
• In general, cat foods contain slightly higher amounts of dietary fat than do most dog foods. For example, dry maintenance cat foods contain between 8% and 13% fat (DM basis).
• The current AAFCO’s Nutrient Profiles minimum fat recommendation for cats during all life stages is 9% in a food containing 4000 kcal/kg.
• Exact estimates for the EFA requirement in cats are difficult to make because adequate levels of linoleic acid in the diet decrease the cat’s requirement for AA, and high levels of AA can meet some of the needs for linoleic acid.
• In Addition, recent evidence suggests that most adult cats do not have a dietary requirement for AA and are capable of synthesizing adequate levels from dietary linoleic acid. The AAFCO’s Nutrient Profiles for cat foods recommends 0.5% linoleic acid and 0.02% AA in diets containing 4000 kcal of ME/kg.
• The current NRC provides similar estimates along with the caveat that the AA recommendation is a presumed adequate intake rather than a minimum requirement for adult maintenance.
• Similar to dogs, requirements have not been established for alpha-linolenic acid or for any of its LCPUFA derivatives for the cat. The NRC provides an AI estimate of 0.1 g of EPA and DHA combined per 1000 g diet in a food containing 4000 kcal/g.


• Early studies of the cat’s nutrient requirements showed that it has a protein requirement substantially higher than that of other mammals, including the dog. When growing kittens were fed varying levels of dietary protein, supplied as minced herring and minced liver, growth was reported to be satisfactory only when protein exceeded 30% of the dry weight of the diet.
• In comparison, growing puppies fed mixed diets required only 20% protein for adequate growth and development. One of the first studies of the protein requirement of the adult cat reported that 21% dietary protein was necessary to maintain nitrogen balance when cats were fed a mixed diet containing liver and whitefish as the primary protein sources.
• Subsequent experimentation using crystalline amino acids and protein isolates allowed more precise definition of the minimum protein requirements of growing kittens and adult cats.
• One study reported a protein requirement of 18% to 20% (by weight) in growing kittens fed either crystalline amino acid diets or casein diets supplemented with methionine.
• Another study reported requirements as low as 16% of ME calories when growing kittens were fed a purified diet containing all of the essential amino acids in their assumed correct concentrations and ratios.
• Using a similar semi purified diet, the protein requirement of adult cats was determined to be 12.5% of ME.
• The profound effect that protein digestibility, amino acid balance, and amino acid availability have on determining an animal’s dietary protein requirement is illustrated by the substantially lower values that were obtained when semipurified and purified diets were used to determine requirements.
• However, the comparison of these figures with the ideal minimum protein requirements of other mammals still demonstrates that the cat, together with other obligate carnivores such as the fox and the mink, has a higher requirement for dietary protein.
• NRC recommended minimum requirement of protein for adult cats of 160 g crude protein/kg food in a diet containing 4 kcal/kg.
• The NRC’s minimum requirement for kittens after weaning is 180 g/kg, equivalent to 15.75% of ME
• Once again, it is important to recognize that all of these values assume highly available and well balanced protein sources that contain all of the necessary amino acids.
• AAFCO Nutrient Profiles for cat foods, as with dog foods, suggest a higher level of protein for inclusion in commercially prepared foods.
• A level of 30% of the diet (dry matter [DM]) is suggested for growth and reproduction in foods containing 4 kcal of ME/g of food. This value is equivalent to 26.25% of ME calories. A level of 26% of the diet, equivalent to 22.75% ME, is suggested for adult maintenance.

• 2 3 months : 4 meals/day
• 3 5 months : 3 meals/day
• 6 8 months : 2 meals/day
• adult: 2 meals/day
• After each feeding the stomach of kitten should be rubbed with coarse warm towel.
• Feeding pot should be very thick otherwise it will be spoiled by the cat stepping on it.


Feeding principles
• Cats are true carnivores and require almost twice as much protein in their diet as dogs.
• The best source of this is from animal products; 30 to 40 percent of the cat’s diet should be animal-type proteins (meat, meat by-products, fish, eggs, and milk).
• About 10 percent of the diet should consist of fat; fat provides calories and the essential fatty acids.
• A cat should be fed using one of the many commercial cat foods. If feeding fresh foods, it is important to provide a variety.
• Strictly feeding meat, chicken, fish, and other muscle meats may cause bone disease, stunted growth in kittens, poor eyesight, and other problems due to the lack of calcium, and vitamin A.
• Calcium can be supplemented by adding sterilized bone flour, calcium phosphate, calcium lactate, or calcium carbonate.
• When feeding meat, it is important that all of the bone has been removed or chopped to prevent pieces of bone from becoming lodged in the throat or digestive system. Cats should never be given chicken bones.
• Canned foods contain more animal protein than the other commercial rations, have a higher fat content that makes them more palatable, and contain about 75 % water.
• Because of the high water content, cats may not drink as much water, but water should be available at all times.
• Labels should be checked because some of the commercial rations may be nutritionally incomplete.
• Fresh and canned foods should not be fed straight from the refrigerator; these foods should be allowed to warm to room temperature before being served.
• Too much liver can cause vitamin A poisoning. Milk is a good source of calcium, but it may cause gas and diarrhea in adult cats.
• Feeding too much of some oily fish such as tuna may through oxidation destroy vitamin E and lead to a deficiency called steatites or yellow fat disease.
• Raw egg white contains a substance that destroys the B Vitamin biotin, but egg yolk and cooked egg white provide valuable protein, fat, and vitamins.

Semi-moist foods

• Semi-moist foods are usually less expensive because they contain some vegetable protein and are usually supplemented with nutrients to make them nutritionally complete.
• Semi-moist foods have chemicals added to keep them from drying out or spoiling; they contain about 30 percent water.
• Again, labels should be checked carefully because some of the semi-moist foods may not be nutritionally complete, especially for growing kittens.

Dry foods

• Dry foods contain about 10 percent water and less fat and protein than semi-moist foods. Cats on dry diets should have plenty of water available.
• Some cats on dry diets may develop bladder problems.
• Milk, water, or gravy can be mixed with the food to improve palatability and to ensure that the cat gets adequate water intake.
• One may wish to feed canned foods occasionally to help prevent bladder problems, get the cat used to different types and textures of foods, and ensure that the cat gets a balanced diet.
• Dry foods do have the advantage of helping to clean the teeth and prevent the buildup of tartar.
Amount of food
• The amount of food one gives depends on the cat’s age, weight, breed, condition, and amount of activity it gets.
• Cats and young kittens will not consume enough food in one meal to last 24 hours
• Two meals are recommended, and young kittens and females that are pregnant or nursing require more frequent feedings.
• Cats should never be given a diet of dog food because it contains large amounts of cereals and vegetables.
• Because of this, the cat may not get enough animal protein.
• Dog food also lacks necessary amounts of vitamins A and B and some essential fatty acids.
• Many times cats will be seen eating grass.
• The exact reason for this is not known, but it may be an attempt to increase roughage in the diet or to eliminate a hairball.


Age in week, Food Number of meal
in 24 hour, Milk meal
in ml, Caloric requirement
for 24 hour, Expected body weight

1 Milk mixture in bottle 12 – 9 2 – 7 40 – 80 100 – 200
2 Milk mixture in bottle 9 7 – 9 80 – 100 200 – 300
3 Milk mixture in bottle 9 10 112 300 – 360
4 Milk mixture in bottle 7 10 115 350 – 420
5 Reduce bottle introduce solid 7 120 400 – 500
6 Milk in bowl; solids 6 125 450 – 600
7 Weaning complete
3 130

• 100 gm of cat’s milk contains 9.5 g protein, 6.8g fat, 10.0g lactose, 35mg calcium and 70 mg phosphorus and provides 142 calories.
• Kittens do not thrive when they are hand reared on cow’s milk but a mixture of dried cow’s milk reconstituted at twice the normal strength is satisfactory.


• The weight gain pattern that occurs in pregnant queens is slightly different from that observed in bitches.
• Although most of the bitch’s weight increase occurs during the last third of gestation, pregnant queens exhibit a linear increase in weight beginning around the second week of gestation.
• A second difference between bitches and queens involves the type of weight that is gained during pregnancy. In dogs, almost all of the pre-parturition gain is lost at whelping.
• In contrast, weight loss immediately following parturition in the cat accounts for only 40% of the weight that was gained during pregnancy. The remaining 60% of the queen’s weight gain is body fat and is gradually lost during lactation.
• Thus it appears that the queen is able to prepare for the excessive demands of lactation by accumulating surplus body energy stores during gestation.
• Similar to dogs, female cats should be fed a diet, that is intended for reproduction throughout gestation and lactation. Litter size is positively influenced by the provision of adequate fat in the queen’s diet, and fat in the diet should provide optimal levels of EFAs, particularly arachidonic acid. Taurine is also an important nutrient to consider because both conception rate and kitten birth weight are reduced in queens when dietary taurine is limiting.

• The amount of food that the queen receives should be gradually increased beginning the second week of gestation and continuing until parturition. At the end of gestation, the queen should be receiving approximately 25% to 50% more food than her normal maintenance needs.

• Because most cats adapt well to free-choice feeding, this is often the best way to provide the pregnant queen with adequate nutrition during pregnancy. The queen’s weight gain should be monitored closely to prevent excessive weight gain during this time. Queens typically gain between 12% and 38% of their pre-pregnancy body weight by the end of gestation.

Protein (%) 7 -8
Lactose (%) 3 – 4
Fat (%) 5 – 7
Calcium (mg/L) 700 – 1800
Magnesium (mg/L) 65 – 70
Iron (mg/L) 8 – 9
Zinc (mg/L) 6 – 7
Copper (mg/L) 1.0
Energy (kcal/L) 850 – 1600

• URIs are similar to the common cold in humans. Symptoms include sneezing, running nose and eyes, reddened eyes, fever, and decreased appetite.
• If left untreated URIs can be fatal. These airborne viruses are highly contagious; they can be transmitted to cats through human handling and through contact with other cats and with inanimate objects such as litter boxes, food bowls, and grooming tools.
• Separate any new cat from your other cats for at least three weeks until you are sure that the newcomer doesn’t have any symptoms of a URI.
• Prevention is the best approach to URIs. Get your cat vaccinated. But if your cat exhibits URI symptoms contact your veterinarian immediately.
• The veterinarian will probably prescribe a dosage of antibiotics to prevent secondary infections and give you precise care instructions.
• Follow them carefully and make sure your cat eats and drinks sufficiently.

• Rabies is a fatal and one of the more common cat diseases.
• It is a viral illness that is transmitted through bite wounds from infected animals and attacks the nervous system.
• Prevent rabies through vaccination and by keeping your cat indoors.

• Also known as feline distemper, this is a highly contagious viral disease that can be transmitted through contact with humans, infected cats, clothing, hair, paws, food bowls, and even cat carriers. The disease comes on suddenly with vomiting, loss of appetite, and diarrhea.
• Prevent this disease by getting your cat vaccinated against this virus.
• Feline panleucopenia – this was the first feline disease to be shown it was caused by a virus.
• It is a highly contagious disease that can affect any kind of cat including lions, tigers and leopards as well as other animals such as mink, ferrets and raccoons. This virus can exist in the environment for months and is resistant to many disinfectants and also heat.
• Usually it is a disease of young kittens, but a cat of any age may be infected.
• Usually a cat becomes infected through direct contact with a cat that is infected or through exposure from contaminated objects or environments.
• Infected cats usually pass the virus through their feces, but can also pass it through their saliva, urine, vomit, and blood.
• A pregnant female can also pass it to her kittens. The incubation period is normally two to ten days and the first symptoms are fever, reduced appetite, vomiting, and lethargy.
• If a cat survives this stage he may get a watery diarrhea within two to three days.
• Unborn kittens may develop brain damage such as a lack of coordination that shows up at a few weeks old.
• There is no extensive treatment and infected cats must be isolated from any other cats and receive intensive nursing care.
• Some cats survive infection, but their recovery usually takes several weeks and they are susceptible to other infections because their immune defenses are compromised.
• The prevention for this disease is to vaccinate against it.


• FeLV is a fatal infectious virus that affects the immune system and can cause several forms of cancer and other associated diseases.
• It is transmitted through the saliva, urine, and faeces of infected cats.
Blood tests can diagnose this disease. The cat should be tested before being vaccinated.
• Prevention is the only cure for this disease. Get your cat vaccinated and keep it indoors.
Feline leukemia virus – Seven out of ten cats are likely to come into contact with this disease at sometime in their life.
• It is responsible for more deaths in cats than any other single cause.
• This is a highly infectious viral disease which is present in the saliva, urine, blood, milk, mucus and feces of permanently infected cats.
• Saliva is the most common route of infection and can be passed on in regular close contact or bite wounds.
• Kittens can pick up FeLV infections from their mothers either before they are born or from her milk.
• There are three outcomes for an infected cat depending on his age, response of his immune system and on the dose of virus that he has received.
• A cat may successfully fight off the disease and become immune to re-infection.
• The cat may be overcome by the disease and because his immune system cannot fight it off a permanent infection with FeLV is the result.
• The cat becomes a factory for the virus. This happens to three out of ten cats exposed to the virus.
• The majority of these infected cats die within three and a half years.
• The most common causes of death from the virus is reduced immunity to other diseases, cancer and anemia.
• The cat’s immune system may attack the virus, but cannot completely beat it.
• Some virus may remain within his body and he may manage to eliminate eventually, if not he will develop FeLV related tumors.
• There are no specific symptoms for this disease. Generally one of the effects of this disease is immunosuppression and the symptoms that occur are from other diseases and infections that FeLV has made the cat prone to.
• The most common symptoms that are associated with permanent FeLV infection is weight loss , fever, conjunctivitis, mouth ulcers and gingivitis, vomiting, diarrhea and anemia.
• There are no specific drugs available to treat FeLV, but permanently infected cats can be treated symptomatically to make them feel more comfortable. Vaccines are available for this disease, but only if the cat hasn’t been permanently infected first.


• FIV is similar to human acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) but the disease causing virus is different.
• This fatal virus attacks the immune system, causing a variety of symptoms.
• General symptoms include chronic, non-responding infections; respiratory problems; appetite loss; persistent diarrhea; and severe oral infections.
• FIV is passed from cat to cat primarily through bites.
• There is currently no vaccination or cure for FIV.
• Keep your cat inside to prevent it from contacting FIV.
• Feline immunodeficiency virus infection (FIV) belongs to a group of viruses called retroviruses.
• FIV is related to HIV, but appears to be able to infect only wild or pet cats.
• The belief the disease is spread by the injection of FIV in saliva when a cat is bitten by another infected cat.
• For the virus to be passed on substantial quantities of the virus need to be injected in this way.
• Outside of the body, the virus is quickly destroyed. About 5 weeks after infection cats may have a raised temperature.
• They develop swollen glands over their bodies. Sometimes this is all that occurs until several months or even years later.
• When further symptoms develop, they are usually the result of other recurrent infections Or diseases such as gingivitis-stomatitis or rhinitis that become permanent because FIV has suppressed the affected cat’s normal immune response to them.
• The individual cat’s symptoms may vary to a degree, but usually these include: lethargy, weight loss, conjunctivitis, gingivitis-stomatitis, diarrhea, skin disorders and anemia.
• These symptoms are more common in male, non-pedigree cats, those who roam freely outdoors and between 6 to 10 years old.
• Currently there is no specific treatment available.


• FIP is deadly virus that is fatal to cats. This virus can take two forms, commonly referred to as wet (which involves fluid in the abdomen) and dry (which does not).
• Both forms of FIP may cause fever, lethargy, vomiting, diarrhea, and loss of appetite.
There is no effective treatment for FIP.
• The best way to prevent this disease is to keep your cat indoors away from strange animals and remain up-to-date on vaccines.
• Feline infectious peritonitis is caused by a coronavirus.
• The disease is spread through the feces or saliva of an infected cat before it shows symptoms of the disease.
• The outcome of the infection depends upon the cat’s age, the precise strain and dose of the virus and the cat’s immune system.
• The strength of the cat’s immune system response may determine whether he suffers from “wet” or “dry” FIP.
• A reduced appetite and lethargy are included in both as initial symptoms.
• “Wet” FIP symptoms will include abdominal swelling, fever, depression, weight loss and anemia .
• The chest may also fill with fluid making breathing difficult. These symptoms develop quickly over a few weeks.
• “Dry” FIP symptoms take longer to develop and cause inflammatory growths in the liver, kidneys, brain and eyes.
• They also include weight loss, depression and fever.
• Currently there is no specific treatment or vaccine. Most cats usually die as a result of infection.


• Caused by toxoplasma gondii a coccidian parasite.
• Pulmonary disease and coughing occur during the initial infection.
• Clinical signs include anorexia, depression, enlarged lymph nodes, central nervous system involvement and anemia.
• This disease is important because it can affect pregnant women.
• The symptoms are a slight fever, swollen lymph glands-like the flu.
• The female passes it on during 5-6 months of pregnancy and it causes severe birth defects.

• This disease is caused by the bacteria Chlamydia psittaci.
• This infection is common in kittens between five weeks and 9 months old.
• Commonly a healthy cat will get the disease through direct contact with a discharge from the eyes or nose of the infected cat. Incubation period is 14 days.
• The treatment for this disease is oral antibiotics and frequent use of antibiotic eye ointments.
• Vaccination against this disease is available.
Reference-on request

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