Animal Genetics Question bank

Animal Genetics MCQs

Animal Genetics Question bank
Animal Genetics Question bank

1. Scientist who coined the term Genetics
2. What is the contribution of Wilhem Johanssen to Genetics?
3. Theory of pangenesis was proposed by ————
4. The concept of Genotype and Phenotype was introduced by —–
5. Chromosome theory of heredity was proposed by
6. Germ plasm theory was put forward by
7. The nationality of Gregor Mendel who is regarded as “father of genetics”
8. In 1900, Mendel’s work were rediscovered by ——-
9. Law of Segregation is also known as——-
10. Human blood group type is an example of —–
11. —— and ——- are two recessive traits that are inherited.
12. What is the ratio due to double recessive epistasis?
13. Linkage was first observed by——— in sweet pea.
14. Crossing over occurs in the ——— stage of meiosis.
15. Chromosome number in fowl is ———
16. Epistasis works at—— level where as Dominance always work at the ——level
17. What is penetrance ?
18. The degree to which a genotype is expressed phenotypically is called
19. Name the scientist who first discovered chromosomes
20. Who coined the term Chromosomes?
21. The organelle from which the r-RNA is synthesized
22. Metacentric chromosomes assume which shape?
23. Pairing of the homologous chromosomes takes place at ——- stage
24. Coiled filament that runs throughout the length of the chromosome is called
25. Darkly stained regions of  the chromosomes at prophase is called —-
26. Sex chromatin are rich in —————–
27. Where are Lampbrush chromosomes found?
28. The Octate structure in the nucleosome consists of —-
29. Balbiani rings or Chromosomal puffing are present in———–
30. Interphase of the cell cycle consists of ———
31. Complete synaptonemal complex is found in which stage?
32. Sythesis of DNA is completed in —–stage of Meiosis
33. The unit representing a map unit between the linked gene……
34. Phenomenon by which crossing over in one region suppresses crossing over in adjacent region—-
35. What is coefficient of coincidence ?
36. —– is measured using coefficient of coincidence ?
37. In fowl females are heterogametic T / F
38. Barred plumage in poultry is a type of —-
39. Genic balance theory of sex determination was proposed by ——-
40. —– confirms the presence of barr body in female somatic cells.
41. ——-syndrome which is caused by deletion of short arm of chromosome no 5
42. Point mutation was first noticed by ——- in Ancon sheep?
43. World’s first chromosome map was produced by——-
44. The no . of chromosomes in Drosophila is ——–
45. Haploid-Diploid type of sex determination is seen in ———
46. In Drosophila sex is determined by the ratio of X chromosome to ——–
47. Polyploids created by chromosome duplication is called ——–
48. The presence of extra chromosome sets in a cell is called as ————-
49. which is the stain used for G banding—-
50. The chart of images of chromosomes is called ———-



1.William Bateson
2.Coined ‘allele’ and ‘genes’
4.W Johanssen
5.W S Sutton
8.Hugo de Vries, Carl Correns Eric von Tschermack
9.Law of purity of gametes
10.Multiple alleles
11.Alkaptonuria and Phenylketonuria
13.Bateson and Punnet
16.Intergenic, Intragenic
17. % of individuals with a given genotypes which exhibits the related phenotypes.
22.“ V “ shape
23. Zygotene
27. Primary oocytes of amphibians and spermatocyte of Drosophila.
28. Two molecules each of H2A, H2B, H3 and H4.
29.Salivary gland cells of Drosophila.
30.G1, S and G2
35.% of observed cross overs/ % of expected crossovers (RATIO)
36. Degree of interference
38.Sex linked character
40.Lyon’s hypothesis
41.Cridu-chat syndrome
42.Seth Wright
43.Alfred Sturtevant
45.Honey bees and wasps

Part-2 :

1. Who gave the theory of path coefficient? (a) Sewell Wright (b) Fisher (c) Haldane (d) Hazel
2. Name the scientist who defined selection as “differential reproductive rate” ? (a) Hazel (b) Lush (c) Lerner (d) Falconer
3. Heritability of a trait is given by (a) rAP (b) bAP (c) bGP (d) none of above
4. Inbreeding coefficient (F) in the first generation when half sibs are bred is (a) 0 (b) 0.062 (c) 0.125 (d) 0.250
5. Inbreeding coefficient (F) through full sib (brother X sister) mating reaches > 0.986 after how many generations (a) 10 (b) 15 (c) 20 (d) none of the above
6. Variance of change in gene frequency after one generation of sampling is (a) ½N(p0q0)2 (b) p0q0/2N (c) 1- p0q0 (d) none of the above
7. Response is not a function of (a) Selection intensity (b) Mean of the trait (b) phenotypic standard deviation of trait (d) h2 of the trait
8. Individual merit and family merit as basis of selection was proposed by ___________ (a) Hazel and Lush (b) Hazel (c) Lush (d) Lerner
9. Another name of selection intensity is ____________ (a) Standardized selection differential (b) Weighed selection differential (c) Selection differential (d) Selection coefficient
10. Selection procedure not widely used in poultry breeding is __________(a) Individual selection (b) family selection (c) progeny testing (d) sib selection
11. The selection index method was introduced in animal breeding by _______ (a) Lush (b) Smith and Hazel (c) Lerner (d) Comstock
12. A locus will contribute to a change of mean value on inbreeding only if _________ (a) Dominance is absent (b) There is epistasis (c) There is partial dominance (d) Dominance is not zero
13. The covariance of the mean of the offspring and the mid parent is ________ (a) VA (b) ½VA+¼VD (c) ½VA (d) VG
14. Intra-sire regression of offspring on dam estimates (a) heritability (b) repeatability (c) half of heritability (d) twice the heritability
15. By increasing the intensity of selection, breeder can increase the _______ (a) response per unit time (b) response per generation (c) realized response (d) realized heritability
16. The occurrence of heterosis on crossing is dependent on (a) non-directional dominance (b) directional dominance (c) presence of dominance (d) presence of heterotic genes
17. A measure of variation which is correlated with the mean is __________ (a) variation (b) standard deviation (c) coefficient of determination (d) coefficient of variation
18. The mean performance of line when expressed as the deviation from the mean of all crosses is called ______ (a) G.C.A of line (b) S.C.A of line (c) G.C.A and S.C.A of line (d) Average effect of the line
19. Reciprocal recurrent selection (RRS) is used to improve (a) only G.C.A (b) only S.C.A (c) Both G.C.A and S.C.A (d) None
20. Reciprocal recurrent selection was first proposed by___________in 1949 (a) Comstock, Robertson and Harvey (b) Comstock, Robinson and Harvey (c) Croas, Robertson and Fisher (d) Comstock, Lush and Hazel
21. What increases or decreases the chance of fixation of a new mutant (a) Crossbreeding (b) Random drift (c) Selection (d) Inbreeding
22. Variance due to general combining ability arises due to (a) VA + VAA+ VAD (b) VA + VAA+ VD (c) VA + VAA+ VDD (d) VA + VAA+ VAAA
23. If the frequency of recessive gene in a population if 0.10, then what would be the frequency of this recessive gene after 4 generations of selection in which all recessive homozygotes are discarded (a) 0.001 (b) 0.071 (c) 0.005 (d) 0.021
24. The ratio of response to selection to selection differential is the: (a) degree of genetic determination (b) heritability in broad sense (c) realized heritability (d) heritability in narrow sense
25. When response to selection has ceased, the population is said to be at (a) zero response (d) selection limit (c) Response limit (d) no response
26. The maternal effect may show an asymmetry of response associated with (a) genes derived from dam (b) maternal component of the trait (c) Traits governed by xx chromosomes (d) traits governed by females hormones
27. If additive gene action is most important for a trait, the best and simplest basis of selection is: (a) pedigree selection (b) individual selection (c) progeny testing (d) none
28. If the environmental and genetic effects of a trait are different to distinguish the individual selection is: (a) advantageous (b) disadvantageous (c) equally efficient to other methods (d) none
29. In an analysis of half sib families the component of covariance between sire is: (a) 1/2 COVA (b) 1/4 COVA (c) 3/4 COVA (d) COVAB
30. Precision of heritability estimate depends on its: (a) standard error (b) coefficient of variation (c) sampling variance (d) all the above
31. The panmictic index at tth generation is (a) Pt = (1+Δf)t P0 (b) Pt = (1-Δf)t P0 (c) (1-Δf t-1) P0 (d) none above
32. Highest genetic gain can be achieved by accurate estimation of breeding value by (a) sires of dams (b) dams of sires (c) sires of sires (d) dams of dams
33. For predicting breeding value of a cow on basis of information on itself, its dam and paternal halfsibs we use _______________ (a) Analysis of variance technique (b) Maximum likelihood technique (c) Multiple correlation technique (d) Multiple regression technique
34. Family selection is better than individual selection when interclass correlation of phenotypic values is ___________ (a) zero (b) 0.5 (c) >0.5 (d) <0.5
35. Faster rate of genetic improvement can be achieved in (a) dairy cattle for milk production (b) sheep for lamb production (c) Pig for litter size (d) broilers for growth rate
36. In case of multiple trait selection, as compared to intensity of selection for each of the trait separately for ‘n’ traits under simultaneous selection, the selection intensity for combined selection would decrease by (a) n times (b) 1/n times (c) 1/√n times (d) 2n times
37. If fixed number of sires are tested under farm progeny testing, the improvement in management practices in cows will improve _______ (a) intensity of selection of sires (b) accuracy of selection of sires (c) Selection differential of sires (d) none
38. The correlated response obtained for a trait when selection is done on another trait is due to ___________ (a) Linkage effect (b) pleotrophic effect (c) epistatic effect (d) dominance effect
39. Hardy Weinberg law was formulated in the year (a) 1809 (b) 1908 (c) 1918 (d) 1928
40. Repeatability sets an upper limit to (a) VA/VP (b) VG/VP (c) both above (d) VA/VD
41. In a population under H-W equilibrium, the maximum genotype frequency of heterozygote will be observed when the frequency of dominant gene is (a) 0.4 (b) 0.5 (c) 0.6 (d) 0.25
42. The genetic covariance of full sib is (a) 1/2 VA (b) 1/4 VA (c) 1/2 VA + 1/4 VD (d) 1/2 VA + 1/2 VD
43. Number of generations ‘t’ required to change the gene frequency from q0 to qt is __________ (a) qt-q0 (b) 2(qt-q0) (c) 1/qt – 1/qo (d) none above
44. if ‘L’ is the load borne by the population, the average fitness of the population is ________ (a) 1-L (b) L-1 (c) 1/L (d) none
45. If gene frequency in migrants is the same as that in the groups from and to which they go, migration affects: (a) quality of population (b) no. of population (c) neither quality nor number (d) both quality and number
46. If 25% have the recessive phenotype (aa) and the population is in equilibrium with respect to this locus, then q is ______ (a) 0.25 (b) 0.5 (c) 0.75 (d) 1.00
47. The difference between the genotype value (G) and the breeding value (A) of a particular genotype is ___________(a) dominance deviation (b) no dominance (c) directional dominance (d) none of the above
48. The quantitative traits are governed by genes having large phenotypic effects are called (a) quantitative genes (b) major genes (c) minor genes (d) polygenes
49. The correlation between breeding values and phenotypic values is equal to the square root of __________ (a) repeatability (b) regression (c) response (d) heritability
50. The resemblance between offspring and parents provide the basis for (a) discrete breeding (b) inbreeding (c) random breeding (d) selection breeding
51. selection brings about many changes in the population. The ultimate interest of the breeder may be in ___________ (a) change in gene frequency (b) change in population mean (c) change in variation (d) extruding the range of traits
52. The sum of the additive or average effects for all loci influencing a trait is referred as (a) additive genetic variance (b) average breeding value (c) dominance variation (d) epistatic variation
53. Sibs selection is recommended for (a) sex linked traits (b) sex limited traits (c) sex influenced traits (d) none of the above
54. The first progeny testing scheme was launched in India during first five year plan at: (a) Hissar (b) Karnal (c) Ludhiana (d) Anand
55. The BLUP method for sire evaluation was suggested by __________ (a) Lush (b) Henderson (c) S. Wright (d) Fischer
56. Nili-Ravi breed of buffalo is formed in (a) Punjab (b) Maharashtra (c) UP (d) Gujarat
57. Project directorate on cattle was established in ________ (a) 1990 (b) 1985 (c) 1987 (d) 1986
58. Equal parent index (EPI) is an expression of: daughter production (a) higher than sire and dam production (b) lower than sire and dam production (c) half way between sire and dam production (d) equal to sire and dam production
59. Variation without natural discontinuities is called continuous variation and character that exhibit it are called (a) metric character (b) correlated character (c) neutral character (d) balanced character
60. The precision of heritability estimate is known by the __________ (a) standard error (b) magnitude (c) method of estimation (d) experimental design
61. The description of the covariance, applicable to any sort of relationship is (a) between half and full sibs (b) between offspring and mid parent (c) between offspring and one parent (d) all the above
62. Sire intra-class correlation (t) is _______ times of h2 variance (a) 1/2 (b) 1/4 (c) 1 time (d) none above
63. Disruptive process change gene frequency in a manner predictable in _______ (a) amount only (b) direction only (c) both (d) none
64. The strength of selection is expressed as (a) coefficient of selection (b) response to selection (c) selection differential (d) none
65. if ‘s’ is the coefficient of selection then the relative fitness of the genotype selected against is : (a) S (b) 1-S (c) S/2 (d) none
66. Genetic drift in small population is an example of __________ (a) systematic process (b) dispersive process (c) none of the above
67. Degree of genetic determination is (a) h2 in narrow sense (b) h2 in broad sense (c) additive variance (d) none
68. When repeatability is low, multiple measurements gives__________ gain in accuracy (a) large (b) a little (c) none
69. The proportion of phenotypic variation expressed by repeatability is (a) permanent genetic variance (b) permanent environmental variance (c) both (d) special environmental variance
70. The regression of offspring and one parent (bop) is given by ____________ (a) VA/VP (b) 1/4 VA/VP (c) 1/2 VA/VP (d) 3/4VA/VP




Part-3 :


1. Germ Plasm theory was postulated by
a) Lamark
b) Weisman
c) Kolliker
d) Hertwig

2. The ability of a given gene or gene combination to be expressed phenotypically to any degree
a) Penetrance
b) expressivity
c) pleiotropism
d) prepotency

3) Linkage group in swamp buffalo
a) 25
b) 30
c) 24
d) 26

4. Total number of genotypes in human ABO blood group system
a) 3
b) 12
c) 6
d) 4

5. Eye colour in drosophila is an example of
a) Sex linked inheritance
b) sex limited inheritance
c) sex influenced inheritance
d) incomplete dominance

6. If the X/A ratio is 0.5, the individual will be
a) Intersex
b) normal female
c) super female
d) normal male

7) Total number of barr bodies in an individual with Turner’s syndrome
a) 0
b) 1
c) 2
d) none of the above

8. In translocation, the exchange of chromosomal segments occurs
a) With in the same chromosome
b) between homologous chromosomes
c) between non homologous chromosomes
d) both b and c

9. If a woman heterozygous for colour blindness marries a colour blind man, what is the probability that their first child will be colour blind daughter?
a) 50%
b) 25 %
c) 75%
d) 100%

10. If the centromere is located close to the end, and giving a very short arm and an exceptionally long arm, the chromosome is called
a) acrocentric
b) telocentric
d)none of the above

11. Shortest phase in mitosis is
a) prophase
b) anaphase
c) metaphase
d) telophase

12. Soluble RNA (sRNA) is
a) tRNA
b) rRNA
d)mitochondrial RNA

13. The theory of epigenesis was proposed by
a) K.F. Wolf
b) Charles Darwin
c) Swammerdam
d) Kolliker

14. Phenotypic F2 ratio of duplicative recessive epistasis (complementary gene interaction) is
a) 12:3:1
b) 9:7
c) 9:6:1
d) 9:3:3:1

15. Source of energy in nucleus is
a) glycolysis only
b) TCA cycle only
c) both a and b
d) none of the above

16. Crossing over taking place at
a) mitosis
b) meiosis ll
c) meiosis l
d)all of the above

17. Xanthine is deaminated product of
a) adenine
b) thymine
c) cytosine
d) guanine

18. The types of phenotypes in F2 generation is
a) 2n
b) 3n
c) n2
d) n3

19. Sum total of genes in a population is
a) genotype
b) karyotype
c) gene pool
d) gene frequency

20. Rho factor is required for the termination of
a) Replication
b) transcription
c) translation
d) transversion

21. The types of histone proteins present in eukaryotic chromosome are
a) 4
b) 5
c) 6
d) 7

22. The classical test cross ratio in dihybrid is
a) 7:1:1:7
b) 1:7:7:1
c) 1:1:1:1
d) both a and b

23. Chromatin consists of
a) DNA & protein only
b) RNA & protein only
c) RNA & protein only
d) DNA,RNA&protein

24. Chromosome number of domestic pig is
a) 38
b) 78
c) 62
d) 54

25. Epistasis is ………… type of interaction
a) inter allelic
b) intra allelic
c) allelic genetic
d) both a and c

26. Sickle cell anemia is due to point mutation, in which
a) glu. is replaced by val.
b) val. is replaced by glu.
c) his. is replaced by val.
d) val. is replaced by his. (Note: val-valine,glu-glutamic acid)

27. MN blood group system in humans is an example of
a) multiple allelism
b) co dominance
c) incomplete dominance
d) pleiotropism

28. If the number multiple alleles for a trait is 5, then what is the total number of genotypes
a) 9
b) 16
c) 12
d) 15

29. Chromosome theory of linkage was proposed by
a) Beadle and Tatum
b) Bateson and Punnett
c) Morgan and Castle
d)Sutton and Bovery

30. Barred condition in poultry is an example of
a) sex linked inheritance
b) sex limited inheritance
c) multiple allelism
d) sex influenced inheritance


1.b 2.a 3.c 4.c 5.a 6.d 7. a 8.c 9.b 10.a 11.b 12.a 13.a 14.b 15.a 16.c 17.d 18.a 19.c 20.b 21.b 22.c 23.d 24.a 25.a 26.a 27.b 28.d 29.c 30.a



1. Quantitative traits are controlled by
a) major genes
b) minor genes
c) poly genes
d ) both b and c

2. Breeding value(BV) is
a) equal to the TA
b) twice the TA
c) 1/2 of TA
d) 1/4 of TA

3. Heritability in narrow sense is
a) VA/VP
b) VE/VP
c) VG/VP

4. Repeatability value set in …………of heritability
a) lower limit of h2
b) upper limit of h2
c ) intermediateof h2
d) both a and b

5. The most effective method of selection
a) mass selection
b) pedigree selection
c) progeny testing
d) selection index

6. Quantitative traits shows
a)continuous variation
b)discontinuous variation
c)both a and b
d)none of the above

7. Genotypic frequency of progeny depends on
a) genotypic freq. of parent
b) genotypic freq. of population
c) gene freq. of parent
d) both a and c

8. In a population sex linked genes are carried by homogametic sex is ………..of the total sex linked genes in the population
a) 1/2
b) 1/4
c) 1/3
d) 2/3

9. Type of gene action in general combining ability (GCA) is
a) additive

b) non additive
c) both a and b
d) none of the above

10.Range of h2 and fitness is
a) 0 to 1
b) -1 to +1
c) 0 to infinity
d) 0 to xn

11. The proportion of population which shows genetic death is
a) genetic sterility
b) genetic linkage
c) genetic load
d) genetic drift

12. For inbreeding, mated individuals should have common ancestors with in
a) 2-3 generations
b) 4-6 generations
c) 6-7 generations
d) more than 10 generations

13. Inbreeding coefficients of progenies produced by self mating, parent offspring mating, full sibs and half sibs are in the order
a) 1,0.5,0.25,0.125
b) 0.5,0.5,0.25,0.125
c) 1,0.5,0.5,0.25
d) 0.5,0.25,0.25,0.125

14. Hissardale is the cross of
a) Merino ewe x Bikaneri ram
b) Lincoln ram x Rambouillet ewe
c) Merino ram x Bikaneri ewe
d) Lincoln ewe x Rambouillet ram

15. In the second generation, hybrid vigor will be
a) same as the first
b) doubled the first
c) half of the first
d)none of the above

16. Crossing of two inbred lines of the same breed is
a) Incrossing
b) Incross breeding
c) top incrossing
d) top incross breeding

17. The intensity of selection depends with number traits considered ‘n’ is
a) 1/n
b) 1/n2
c) n
d) 1/√n

18. Non additive gene action include,
a) epistasis
b) dominance
c) interaction
d) all of the above

19. Mildest form of out breeding is
a) Cross breeding
b) close breeding
c) out crossing
d) rotational crossing

20. The dispersive process mainly occurs in small population in which,
a) only direction can be predicted not amount
b) only amount can be predicted not direction
c) both amount and direction can be predicted
d) direction and amount cannot be predicted

21. The contribution of offspring to the next generation is called
a) fitness
b) adaptive value
c) selective value
d) all of the above

22. Genotypic correlation is due to
a) polymorphism
b) linkage
c) pleiotropism
d) both b and c

23. Carcass quality and quantity is an example of
a) non additive gene interaction
b) additive gene interaction
c) both a &b
d)none of the above

24. In MN blood group system, genotypes are MM = 153, MN = 260, NN = 87, then the gene frequencies of M and N alleles are
a) 0.64, 0.36
b) 0.5, 0.5
c) 0.566, 0.434
d) 0.518, 0.482

25. A new breed can be evolved by
a) out crossing
b) cross breeding
c) grading up
d) none of the above

26. If the coefficient of selection is 0.25, then the fitness is
a) 1
b ) 0.25
c) 0.75

27. Father of modern animal breeding
a) Robert Bakewell
b) S.Wright
c)J.L. Lush

28. Reproductive traits in animals usually follow …………… type h2
a) High
b) medium
c) low
d) none of the above

29. The goat breed, toggenberg originated from
a) Spain
b) Denmark
c) Switzerland
d) France

30. Grading up produces pure breed in how many generations
a) 2-4
b) 4-5
c) 10-12
d) 7-8

Answers B:
1.d 2.b 3.a 4.b 5.c 6.a 7.c 8.d 9.a 10.a 11.c 12.b 13.d 14.c 15.c 16.a 17.d 18.d 19.c 20.b 21.d 22.d 23.b 24.c 25.b 26.c 27.c 28.c 29.c 30.d

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