Introduction of Veterinary Parasitology - The Veterinary Site

Introduction of Veterinary Parasitology


Veterinary Parasitology

(by MAAZ AHMED SIDDIQUI )

q  The science or study of host-parasite relationships which infect animals.
q  One of the most interesting, Fascinating and interdisciplinary field of Veterinary Science including e.g. Taxonomy, biochemistry, genetics, molecular biology, immunology, epidemiology, pathology.....
  
Parasite
       Greek Word Para (beside) and sitos (grain or food)
  1. An animal that lives completely at the expense of other animal, plant or human.
  2. An organism which lives in or on another organism and benefits at other’s expense
v  Estimate states that about half of the known sps. On earth are parasitic at least at once in life.
Disciplines
Ø  Veterinary entomology: the study of parasitic arthropods, including insects, ticks and mites.
Ø  Veterinary protozoology: a subject that embraces the     wide range of single-celled eukaryotic organisms that comprise the parasitic protozoa.
Ø  Veterinary helminthology: which covers three main groups of parasitic worms–trematodes           (flukes), cestodes (tapeworms) and nematodes (roundworms), as well as some minor groups  such             as the                thorny –headed worms
Host
“the partner providing food and/or protection”.
 Some parasites require more than one host to complete their life cycle; Or may not require a host during some stage(s).
Parasites and Parasitism 
Parasitism
  1. Parasitism is part of a spectrum of intimate zoological relationships between unrelated Organisms.
  2. Complex interaction between two species (Host and parasite)
      For Example
             Commensalism
             Symbiosis
Types of Parasite
       Taxonomic Approach
       Location of Parasite
                                                (Endo and Ecto parasite)
       Size of Parasite
                                                (Micro, Macro parasite)
       Host Specificity
                                                (Monoxenous, oligoxenous)
       Amount of Time on Host
(Temporary, Permanent)
Types of Parasites
       Number of Hosts Required for the completion of Life cycle
                                                (Homoxenous, Heteroxenous)
       Obligativity of Parasitic Life
                                                (Obligate, Facultative)
       Duration of Parasite
                                                (Temporary, Permanent)
       Parasitic Life Stages
                                                (Pre-Imaginal, Imaginal Parasite)
Types of Host
       Definitive Host
       Intermediate Host
       Paratenic Host
       Reservoir Host
       Vector Host
       Dead End Host
       Incidental Host
Detection of Suitable Host
       Enormous offspring Production
       Passive Dispersion
       Active Host Finding
       Sensory Organ (Haller Organ)
       Sexual Contact
       Predation
       Inoculative
v  Vector Born Parasitic Infection
v  Auto Infection
v  Vertical Transmission
Life Cycle Of Parasite
A series of developmental stages through which an organism go through in this pattern that the last stage of cycle must be able to produce initial stage from the subsequent cycle.
q  To complete life cycle parasite have to overcome these obstacles
  1. Immune system of host
  2. Adverse environmental factors
  3. Ecological requirements for host to host transmission.
Parasitic Damage to Host:
n  Trauma - damage to tissues, intestine, liver, eye.
n  Lytic action - activity of enzymes elaborated by organism.
n  Tissue response - localized inflammation, eosinophilia.
n  Blood loss - heavy infection with hookworm may cause anemia.
n  Secondary infections - weakened host susceptible to bacterial infection, etc
Parasite Impact
on the Host
Ø  Production or Development of Disease (as Vector)
Ø   Nutrient Robbing
Ø   Toxin Production
Ø   Interactions with Host immune / Inflammatory responses.
Ø  Hypersensitivity (Flea Allergy Dermatitis)
Economic Losses
        losses are partly due to deaths,  but even more due to illness
       reduced growth rate
       Decrease Production
       Can not achieve optimal Potential
       Decrease Fertility
       Loss of Appealing Vigor of Animal



Introduction of Veterinary Parasitology Introduction of Veterinary Parasitology Reviewed by Maaz ahmed siddiqui on 10 May Rating: 5

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