Do you know about Zoonosis ? - The Veterinary Site

Do you know about Zoonosis ?

Zoonosis
(by  MAAZ AHMED SIDDIQUI )
Disease of animals transmitted to people.
1. Anthropozoonosis(etymologically, simply a disease of humans and animals) defines a disease of humans acquired from animals, e.g., rabies, plague, brucellosis, leptospirosis, Rhodesian sleeping sickness, tick-borne encephalitis or relapsing fever, babesiosis, ehrlichiosis, Chagas’ disease, and trichinosis.
2. Zooanthroponosis, considered by some as ‘‘reverse zoonosis,’’ defines a disease of animals acquired from people—e.g., transmission of Entamoeba histolyticato cats, Giardia lambliato dogs, tuberculosis to cattle, or Schistosoma mansoni to baboons.
3. Amphixenosis (etymologically, disease of both hosts) defines an infection interchangeable between people and other vertebrates, e.g., Chagas’ disease, Schistosoma japonicum,or Staphylococcus species.
4. Anthroponoses (etymologically, disease of humans) defines infections restricted to humans that evolved from infections of lower animals—e.g., malaria, typhus, and relapsing fever
Other terms presented included euzoonosis for infections common to humans and reservoir hosts (probably the same as amphixenosis), e.g., S. japonicumin humans and various mammals, and parazoonosis, in which humans are infected with a zoonotic agent only rarely, e.g., canine heartworm. The biology of agents has also been defined relative to zoonosis. Cyclozoonosis describes zoonotic agents restricted to vertebrates, e.g.,Taenia solium. Metazoonosis describes agents that cycle between vertebrates and invertebrates, e.g., malaria. Saprozoonosisis for agents cycling between a vertebrates and nonanimal hosts, e.g.,Fasciola hepaticawith metacercariae on vegetation. No words are apparently in existence to address the transmission of agents from wild to domestic animals and the opposite, the transmission of pathogens from domestic animals to domestic or wild animals. Infections of animals with agents for which they are atypical hosts are here in divided into three groups (ignoring the infections shared between different wild animals): (1) infection of domestic animals with pathogens from wildlife, (2) infection of domestic animals with pathogens of domestic animals, and (3) infection of wild animals with pathogens of domestic animals.
 Zootherionosis(zoon, animal +therion, wild animal +o+ nosos, disease) is used to define diseases of domestic animals infected with pathogens of wildlife. The classic example is the infection of imported domestic animals with African wildlife trypanosomes. Other examples include infections with Leishmania, plague, Lyme disease, and rickettsiae from rodent reservoirs; the viruses of foot and mouth disease and avian influenza, and Hendra and Nipah viruses; larval infections with Alaria species, spargana, tetrathyridia, larval
Baylisascaris procyonis and Armillifer armillata, and bots of Cuterebra; and horses and cats, which serve as hosts of the asexual stages of the equine protozoal myeloencephalitis agent, Sarcocystis neurona. Cats are lethally infected with Cytauxzoon felis of the bobcat. Infections with sexually mature pathogens include the trematodes Paragonimus kellicottiin dogs and cats, Fascioloides magnain cattle and sheep, Alaria marchianaeandPlatynosomum fastosumin cats, and Heterobilharzia americanumin dogs; the cestodes Spirometra mansonoidesin dogs and cats and Thysanosoma and Wyominia in domestic ruminants; and the nematodes Parelaphostrongylus tenuis in ruminants, B. procyonis, Dracunculus insignis, Onchocerca,andDioctophyme renalein dogs and Lagochilascaris minorin cats.
Zootithasonosis(zoon, animal +tithas,tamed+o+nosos, disease) is used for those cases in which a pathogen from one type of domestic animal infects other domestic animals. Feline panleukopenia virus adapted to dogs, causing a global outbreak of canine morbidity and mortality. Bovine diarrhea virus infects sheep and goats, causing border disease. Cats infect dogs with ringworm, Microsporum canis.Catsand ferrets are parasitized with adult canine heartworms Dirofilaria immitis. Trichostrongylus axeiof ruminants infects the domestic horse. Cats and rabbits develop visceral larval migrans from infections with the dog roundworm,T. canis. The cat roundworm,Toxocara cati, causes white spot disease in the livers of pigs. Ruminants are infected with taeniid tapeworms of dogs and large cats.The cat can be a host of the coenurus of Taenia serialis,which uses dogs as final hosts.
Theriotithasonosis* is used for those cases in which wild animals can be infected with pathogens from domestic animals. Lions in the Serengeti and in captivity have succumbed to a variant of the distemper virus from dogs.  Wolves, coyotes, and African wild dogs have been infected with canine parvovirus from domestic dogs. Macropodid marsupials sometimes are infected with ovine Johne’s disease bacteria (Mycobacterium aviumsubspecies paratuberculosis).
Domestic goats infect wild goats with infectious keratoconjunctivitis (Mycoplasma conjunctivae). Domestic cattle with contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (Mycoplasma mycoides
subspeciesmycoides[small colony type]) have infected African water buffaloes and zebu cattle.T. canisroutinely infects rodents and birds and can infect tortoises. Toxoplasma gondii causes infections in numerous wild animals and has now been reported to cause disease in aquatic mammals. Adult heartworms cause disease in sea lions, and Dicrocoelium dendriticum causes infections in deer, rabbits, and woodchucks.

Do you know about Zoonosis ? Do you know about Zoonosis ? Reviewed by Maaz ahmed siddiqui on 17 May Rating: 5

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