Chloramphenicols - The Veterinary Site

Chloramphenicols


Chloramphenicols
(by MAAZ AHMED SIDDIQUI)
These are comprised of:
1)      Chloramphenicol
2)      Thiamphenicol
3)      Florfenicol
These are broad spectrum antibiotics. These are effective against gram +ive as well as gram -ive bacteria. These are basically bacteriostatic. Only these antibiotics are lipophilic in nature. Their use is indicated in life threatening infections i.e. CNS infection. These are very toxic, so can’t be prescribed in normal infection. These will enhance the fungal growth on mucous membrane.
These are completely absorbed from the gut. These are drug of choice in nerve infection. These are excreted not only through urine but also in milk.
Mode of Action
These inhibit 50S ribosomal subunit and block the protein synthesis in bacteria. These also inhibit the mitochondrial protein synthesis in mammalian cells.
Florfenicol causes the super coiling of DNA in mammals by blocking the topoisomerase.
Resistance
Resistance develops in bacteria having R-factor (It codes for enzyme Acetyl CoA Transferase or Peptidyl Transferase which inactivates Chloramphenicol)
Adverse Reactions (Especially of Chloramphenicol)
®  Gastric upset
®  Increased growth of fungus on mucous membrane
®  Anemia
o   Low number of RBCs due to bone marrow depression because these block erythropoiesis by inhibiting erythropoietin
®  Human and animals suffer from haemolytic anemia if they are deficient in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase
®  In some animals, a single dose can cause aplastic anemia but this happens rarely
o   Aplastic anemia is irreversible and fatal while haemolytic anemia is reversible
o   There is still no case of aplastic anemia reported with the use of Florfenicol and Thiamphenicol
®  Grey baby syndrome



Chloramphenicols Chloramphenicols Reviewed by Maaz ahmed siddiqui on 08 May Rating: 5

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